The 1896 Paris to Marseille to Paris.

GPevolved title graphic for Paris to Marseilles, 1896

The Formation of the Automobile Club de France.

Men of the Day No.761: Caricature of Le Comte ...
Men of the Day No.761: Caricature of Le Comte Albert de Dion. Caption reads: “Automobile” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It was November 1895.  The committee that sponsored the major city to city race last summer had to determine its future.  Initially, there was some disagreement as to whether the committee should remain just that, a committee, or become a proper club.  In the end, the Automobile Club de France was formed at the “Quai d’Orsay” home of the Comte de Dion on November 12, 1895.

Why is this important?  Let me tell you.  For the first time, the burgeoning motorsport movement, as it were, had a head.  Moreover, the formation of a French national automobile club assisted in cementing France’s leadership of the movement.

Following its formation in November 1895, the high-society types that formed the club started work on a major city to city race for the upcoming 1896 motor racing season.

Paris to Marseilles and back was chosen as the general destinations of the race.  However, all-night racing (as used in the 1895 Paris to Bordeaux) was abandoned in favor of a timed-stage setup.  There seems to have been a recognition that the all-out endurance type of event, through the night and on unfamiliar roads, was simply too dangerous.  In other words, the means did not justify the ends.

January 1896: The Route from Paris to Marseilles, and Back, was Published.

The race was to start and end in the epicenter of early motorsport culture: Paris.  From Paris, the race was to go have daily stages to Auxerre, Dijon, Lyons, and Avignon, before arriving in Marseilles.  The route in return was only slightly different.  But, in publishing the details as early as January 1896, it was clear that the new Automobile Club de France meant business.

February 1896: Classes Introduced.

Das benzinbetriebene Dreirad Voiturette von Lé...
Das benzinbetriebene Dreirad Voiturette von Léon_Bollée, 1896; Damit legte er die Strecke Le Mans – Paris in sieben Stunden zurück. 650 ccm, Cité de l’Automobile – Musée National – Collection Schlumpf, Mülhausen, Frankreich (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The regulations were published in full detail the next month, in February 1896.  In these early days of the automotive frontier, not just new vehicles were being created, but also entire new categories and types of vehicles.  For example, the three-wheelers by Bollée and de Dion certainly broke the established mold.

It was these diverging strands of vehicles that provided the impetus for instituting multiple classes for the upcoming 1896 Paris-Marseilles-Paris race.  There was a subdivided class for cars, depending on the number of seats, and a subdivided class for motorcycles, depending on whether or not they were assisted by pedals.

The regulations were  simple in these early days of racing.  Each car had to carry an Automobile Club de France (ACF) observer.  Repairs were, generally, to be made only during running time, although there was some quibbling as to what actually constituted a repair.  In the end, it was decided that anything short of completely replacing a part was to be allowed outside of actual running.

The 1896 Race Itself: Paris to Marseilles and Back.

Thirty-two competitors started the race on September 24, 1896.  Of the 32, there was 24 petrol cars, 3 steam cars, and 5 tricycles.  The tricycles had previously qualified in a race from Paris to Mantes, a few days earlier.  At the start, there were thousands out watching this event.  The police did what they could to control the crowds.

According to Gerald Rose’s account (cited below), “In all twenty-seven competitors finished the first stage and the speeds were unusually high, the Bollée averaging about 20 M.P.H.”

Through the night, there was an electrifying change in the weather and a massive storm swept across France.  The roads turned to mud and became incredibly slippery. Trees were down.  Debris filled the competitors paths.  Yet, these hearty competitors endured.  Oddly, one of the Bollées was charged by a bull. The car was damaged so badly that it could not continue.

The next day, the heavy rain continued, even if the thunder had subsided.  The real threat to these high mounted, low horsepower cars, was the wind.  The rain eventually stopped, several days later, but not before wreaking havoc on the field.  Rose summarizes:

 

The finish of the race was considered a great success and those involved enjoyed the parties along the way.  The race was won by one Mr. Mayade who finished the entire race at an average pace of 15.7 miles per hour.

 

//Travis Turner

Primary Source: Gerald Rose, A Record of Motor Racing 1894 – 1908.

The 1896 Motorsport Season Begins…

Bordeaux Gets into the Game.

The 1896 motorsport season began with a couple relatively minor races out of Bordeaux, France.  Admittedly, Gerald Rose’s tome, cited below, is my only source for these races.

In short, the excitement of being the destination of the major 1895 city to city race led some interested folks in Bordeaux to organize a couple of their own races.

April 26, 1896: Bordeaux to Langon.

This was a relatively short race of 28.75 miles.  Six cars finished the race, which was won by a Mr. Bord; however, accurate times for this race have been lost to history.

Another driver, by the name of Marly, drove into a house.  However, as noted by Mr. Rose, the accident was not that bad as he still finished the race in fourth place.

There was a dinner at the end of the race.  Clearly, there must have been some excitement over the success of the event, because they decided there and then to organize another–longer–race for May 24th and 25th of that year.

May 24-25, 1896: Bordeaux to Agen to Bordeaux.

Day one was the race from Bordeaux to Agen.  The second day was the return trip.  The total race totaled somewhere in the neighborhood of 170 miles (171.25 according to Rose).For whatever reason, the race was only open to folks who had possessed cars before January 1, 1896.   This seems to be an odd, and possibly elitist rule; however, it had the effect of curtailing the number of entries.

Like many of the early races, there were far fewer starters than entrants.  Of the 30 cars entered, only seven made it to the starting line.  There were three Peugeots, two Panhard et Levassors, a Hildebrand-Wolfmüller, and a De Dion.  One Mr. Bousquet was the first to reach Agen, the midpoint of the race.  On the second day, he was also the first to get back home to Bordeaux.  Thus, Mr. Bousquet won.

This race did not receive the attention that the Bordeaux organizers had hoped for, primarily because the race occurred at the same time as another, much more popular event: the Bordeaux to Paris bicycle race.

A Cosmopolitan Failure.

The magazine “Cosmopolitan” (which it turns out is a much older publication than I had ever expected), organized a race in New York City for May 30, 1896.  Again, according to Gerald Rose, the race was a “complete fiasco.”

There were only six cars entered for the tour around through Central Park and through New York City.  Only one car, a Duryea, managed to complete the course.  The race was such a failure that Rose opines it “seriously damaged” the reputation and future of the self-propelled vehicle in France.

In Conclusion.

I find these early races fascinating because you can literally see the foundation and future of  motorsport being figured out by a few interested groups of people.  I cannot help but wonder if they knew the destiny that motorsport would end up having world-wide?  Were they cognizant of the virtual certainty of the cars’ future as the dominant mode of transportation (at least in America)?

I also have a sense of regret that these early races are disappearing into the darkness of history.  Motorsport is inherently a forward-looking sport.  It is always looking for new technology and new drivers to be ultimately quickest.  In this regard, motorsport is a cruel friend to history.  I find this quite sad.  And so, perhaps in some humble way, Project GPevolved can bring a bit of forgotten history into the light again.

 

/ Travis Turner of GPevolved.com

Source: Gerald Rose, A Record of Motor Racing: 1894 – 1908 (1949).

America’s First Race: The Chicago Times-Herald Race of 1895.

The 1895 Chicago Times-Herald Race.

The 1895 Chicago Times-Herald race was the first organized motorsport event on states’ soil.  It was almost a failure.

H. H. Kohlstaat, an employee of the newspaper, happened to pick up a copy of a Parisian publication that May.  The publication was L’Illustration and contained an account–presumably with illustrations–of the Paris to Bordeaux race which had just taken place.  He called the editor into his office, a man by the name of Frederick “Grizzly” Adams, where they discussed bringing motorsport to America.

English: Mueller-Benz car entered in the Chica...
English: Mueller-Benz car entered in the Chicago Times-Herald car race of 1895. Seated are the Race Officials of Col. Marshall I. Ludington, Henry Timken, C.P. Kimball, with driver Oscar B. Mueller (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mr. Kohlsaat wrote, in a 1941 article for The Saturday Evening Post, “Adams was enthusiastic and at once drew up a plan which I endorsed and published.”  Recognizing the possible military importance of the so called automobile (variously referred to as a “motocycle” among other terms), President Cleveland was consulted.  Under the direction of a General Wesley Merritt, a testing rig was even set up to see which of the vehicles performed best under load.  The race was initially set for July 4, 1895.

An Independence Day Failure.

According to Kohlsaat, “When July Fourth arrived, there was only one machine ready–the Haynes-Apperson of Kokomo, Indiana.”  Recognizing the impossibility of a one-man race, the race was rescheduled for Labor Day, in September.

The September date was also postponed.  The race was scheduled for Thanksgiving Day, November 28, 1895.

The Pre-Race.

Patent Drawing for the Duryea Road Vehicle, 06...
Patent Drawing for the Duryea Road Vehicle, 06/11/1895. This is the printed patent drawing of the road vehicle invented by Charles E. Duryea. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Presumably to help generate interest for the main event, a minor event was hosted by The Chicago-Times Herald in early November 1895.  The race was a simple trial between two cars.  Competing were the H. Mueller Benz Gasoline Motor (of Decatur, Illinois) and the Duryea Gasoline Motor Wagon (of Springfield, Massachusetts ).

The race was set at a lengthy 92 miles, from Washington Park in Chicago to Waukegan, Illinois and back to the Grant Monument in Lincoln Park.

Mr. Mueller won a staggering–for the time–$500 for making the trip in 9.5 hours.  His competitor, Mr. Duryea was not so lucky.  According to Mr. Kohlsaat’s Saturday Evening Post Article:

“The Duryea motor ran into a ditch to avoid a farmer who turned his horses to the left instead of the right.  He said, he was so scared to see a buggy without any horses hitched to it coming up to the road behind him, he did not know what he was doing.  To avoid a collision, Mr. Duryea, who was driving this motor, drove into the ditch, hopping to climb up the slight embankment, but broke a wheel and gave up the race.”

The Main Event.

The race, on Thanksgiving day, was preceded the night before by two to three inches of snow.  Sixty-some contestants had signed up; however, only six made it to the starting line.  Having repaired his vehicle. Mr. Duryea was one of them.  H. Mueller’s car was also there.  The other four included the gasoline-engined cars of the De La Vergne Refridgerator Machine Company, and the R. H. Macy company.  Shockingly, two electric vehicles also made it to the starting line (The Sturges Electric (Chicago) and The Morris and Salon (Philadelphia).

Leading up to the race, there was even a bit of trash-talking.  The newspaper editor of the Times-Herald commented:

“The Paris-Bordeaux race was worthless from a scientific standpoint, but the contest of today may result in the established of good data concerning what many believe the vehicle of the future.”

The electric cars failed to make it very far and were quickly out of the race.  At the first relay station, the R. H. Macy carriage was in the lead.  However, the Duryea, although 20 minutes behind, was charging hard.

America's First Automobile Race map
America’s First Automobile Race map (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When the cars reached Evanston, spectator interest in the contest remained high and their were plenty of folks cheering and watching.  At that point, the R. H. Macy machine held the lead, but only slightly.

A slight incline was noted at Forest Avenue up to Chicago Avenue.  The crowds cheered as the cars trundled up the minor hill.

The Macy car had a close call with a horse-drawn taxi that failed to give the appropriate right-of-way.

By the time the remaining handful of cars reached Douglas Park, it was getting dark and much colder.  In fact, as the cars hit California Avenue, there was not a single spectator left.  The race of attrition was failing to keep an audience on hand to see the progress.

In the end, the R. H. Macy car broke down and failed to finish the race.  The Duryea won.  The only other finisher was the Mueller car, in second place.

In general, due to the lack of spectators and the fact that only two spectators finished, the race was a bit of a failure.  The Times-Herald barely gave but only minimal lines to the discussion of race results.  Perhaps not as magnificent as the early European city to city races, the 1895 Chicago Times-Herald Race brought motorsport to North America.

 

///Travis Turner of GPevolved.

Sources:

Gerald Rose, A Record of Motor Racing: 1894 – 1908 (1949)

H. H. Hohlsaat, America’s First Horseless Carriage Race, 1895; The Saturday Evening Post (January 5, 1941)

Various Articles from The Horseless Carriage, Volume 1 (1895) (available through google books).

The Distant History of the Automobile

A Tortuous Journey.

Most of use a car every day.  Those who do not still rely on an internal combustion energy, in some capacity, as we enjoy life’s modern conveniences.  This (rebooted) blog is a celebration of motorsport.  However, to understand motorsport, it is only proper to begin with the story underlying it all: the story of the car.

Some time ago, I decided that it was absurd how little I knew about the inception of the automobile (in light of my passion for cars).  Sure, I knew that Kark Benz and a 19th century patent had something to do with it.  In fact, I even knew that the car came about, more or less, in the 1880s.  Yet, I could not have told you much more with any reasonable degree of certainty.  What surprised me was the twists and turns humanity took in its quest to find a means of horseless (or animal-less) land propulsion.

It Was a Matter of Vision.

By the 17th century, a strong societal need was emerging for horseless propulsion.  Global trade was flourishing and the horse and carriage of the inland was outmatched by the galleon of the seas, when it came to moving people and goods.  In the case of the automobile, necessity was very plainly the mother invention.  Even when its need was becoming paramount in the 1700s, the landscape lacked someone with both the engineering genius and futuristic vision to create something as wild as the “automobile.”

You see, a lot needed to happen before the everyman could hop in his ride and take a cruise around town.  First, there needed to be roads suited for the wheels and tires of the time.  Second, a power sourced was necessary to move the vehicle, which was unencumbered by excessive weight.  Third, a method of transmitting the rotary power of the internal combustion engine to the road was required.  Fourth, the vehicle needed to be reasonable capable of getting up to speed, maintaining speed, and turning.  It also needed to stop in a safe matter.  These are merely the most prominent features required of a self-propelled vehicle.

This was a tall order.  Certainly, the need for horseless propulsion had been growing since the early days of the enlightenment, if not before.  While need may be the mother of innovation, need does not in and of itself necessitate invention or progress.  That takes perseverance and vision.  There were those such as James Watt who never believed a society driven by vehicles would be possible; however, were willing to register patents to impede the progress of others.  Yes, I am suggesting that the man for whom the unit of power is named was also something of a patent troll.

There were technical problems as well.  For example, how do you turn a car?  It is easy to get the front two wheels to angle left or right in unison.  But, how do you get the driving wheels to turn at the slightly different speeds critical for executing a turn?  It is these types of problems that caused over 150 years of trials and tribulations before Karl Benz invented what is generally accepted as the grandfather of the modern car.

Having set the stage, I will leave things here until the next post, which will deal with the ancient history of locomotion.