“Without any deviation from the norm, progress is not possible.”
Motoring in Great Britain was, in essence, illegal until 1896. Emancipation Day, a cold and rainy November day, saw the run from London to Brighton, following the passage of less restrictive legislation. This run stands as the legal start to motoring in Great Britain.
Motoring is Banned.
Motoring was banned in Great Britain before the motor act even existed. An essay by John Henry Knight notes that 70 years before 1906, just as railroads were being introduces, “there were scores of steam coaches and steam carriages running on [British] roads.” He recites the great pioneers of the steam coach and steam carriage such as Hancock, Gurney, and Summers.
However, according to Knight, :”but the opposition of the Turnpike Trustees, the coach proprietors, and the railway companies nipped in the bud a promising industry by the imposition of excessive tolls and adverse Acts of Parliament.”
That Act of Parliament included the The Locomotives Act, 1865, provided “it shall not be lawful to drive any locomotive along any turnpike road or public highway at a greater speed than 4 miles per hour, or through any city, cotton , or village at a greater speed than 2 miles per hour.” These few words quashed most progress in the motoring arts until 1896.
It is important to realize that The Locomotives Act of 1865 never contemplated the petrol/gasoline powered vehicle. According to Mr. R. E. Moore, writing in 1906:
Of course, the truth of the matter is, that when these regulations were first imposed, the Legislature had in contemplation only such cumbrous and unwieldy machines as the old-fashioned steam traction engine, and it never occurred to any of those responsible for framing that it would ever be possible for anyone to place on the road such a striking example of engineering skill and applied science as the modern light motor-car.”
Society was hesitant to accept similar technologies. According to John Henry Knight, “Even when the bicycle appeared about 1869, it was viewed with displeasure and suspicion; horses would shy at it, and several accidents occurred from this cause.”
It wasn’t exactly “fast and furious” yet; however, there was a London underground motoring scene before the passage of an amendment to The Locomotives Act in 1896. For example, Sir David Solomons, Bart., built an electric automobile in 1874, The wealthy were quietly importing motoring vehicles for on the use on private property. However, these privately imported vehicles were few and far between.
Public Opinion Opposed Motoring in Britain.
According to Lord Northcliffe, in Montagu’s compilation of essays, “We had first enthusiasm and curiosity, causing cheering crowds to assemble when we arrived in a town; then, when it began to be seen that horses were frightened (and in those days every horse was frightened), the populace became wrathful.
Sir David Solomons, Bart., was an early proponent of legalized motoring. According to him., “the first step would be to interest the public, if only by way of curiosity, secondly to obtain the opinion of the press, and thirdly to influence parliament by a powerful and impartial combination…”
Although simply stated, this small grassroots movement faced overwhelming opposition. Sir David Solomons planned to change it.
The Tunbridge Wells Demonstration.
Organized by Solomons, himself, a demonstration of several cars occurred on October 15, 1895. According to C. L. Freeston, “it was then that the public realized for the first time that a new means of locomotion had been brought into being.”
However, the success of the event was not left to chance. Solomons had over 10,000 invitations mailed out to this event. It was a general success. The press covered the event and this, presumably, helped to sway the opinion of the members of parliament.
Parliament Debates Motoring.
The comments summarizing the July 30, 1896 parliamentary debate give a sense of inevitability. There was a feeling that the legislation would pass; it was just a matter of hammering out the particulars. The car had to carry lights at night. It had to have a bell. Breaking any part of the proposed amendment would result in a fine of up to 10 pounds.
Debate heated up on the topic of “rate of speed.” It is clear than an unlimited speed limit would never have gained parliamentary support. The debate started off with discussion of a ten mile per hour speed limit. They were concerned about protecting against “furious driving.”
Others objected to imposition of a strict liability statute, that it would be better to set standards depending on condition. This suggestion, while noble, was quickly shot down. In the end, the speed limit was increased to 14 miles per hour, from the original suggestion of 10 miles per hour. However, in getting the increase, the proponents of motorsport gave in to language to allow every city, town, and municipality, to reduce this speed in any manner they saw fit.
And in doing so, Lord Solomon, Lord Montagu, and other proponents of motoring succeeded in changing the law of the land. However, the act would not go into effect
The celebration of the emancipation of the motor vehicle was celebrated by a run from London to Brighton, covered in a forthcoming post.
/ Travis Turner of GPevolved
A History of the First Ten Years of Automobilism, Lord Montagu (a collection of essays published in 1906).
Locomotives on Highways Bill [H.L.] (Hansard, 30 July 1896) (summarizing the parliamentary debate)